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PRINCIPLES-BASED ACCOUNTING provides for few exact rules and little implementation guidance. Instead, general principles are put forward and companies must ensure that their financial statements fairly and accurately represent these principles. Proponents argue that this type of system does not allow for less than ethical financial engineering, where complex transactions are undertaken in order to get around following specific rules-based accounting standards. Critics believe a principles-based system allows too much leeway for companies, because they generally do not have to follow specific rules, only wide-arching principles. See also RULES-BASED ACCOUNTING.

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M as the fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock symbol indicates that the issue is the fourth class of preferred shares of the company.

DEFAULT, in finance, default is what occurs when a party is unwilling or unable to pay their debt obligations. This can occur with all debt obligations including bonds, debentures, mortgages, loans, and notes. Default can also occur with sovereign bonds, that is, governments can default on their payments to creditors. In corporate finance, a default is typically a prelude to bankruptcy. With most mortgages and loans the total amount owing becomes immediately payable on the first instance of a default of payment.

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