PRIVATE PLACEMENT is investments in companies that are privately owned; i.e, they are companies that are not traded on a public stock exchange (e.g., NYSE, NASDAQ, and AMEX).
OUT-OF-P0CKET are expenses requiring an outlay of cash in a given time period, e.g., payroll, advertising and other operating expenses, but not depreciation.
OPERATIONAL GEARING is the higher the proportion of fixed costs relative to variable operating costs, the higher the operational gearing. This results in greater business risk. A retailer has high fixed costs relative to variable costs, so has a lot of business risk. See GEARING and FINANCIAL GEARING.
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