PRODUCTIVITY RATIO is the ratio of outputs to inputs. The closer the ratio is to 1.0, the higher the productivity; the closer the ratio is to 0.0, the lower the productivity. Productivity is important because it relates to an organizations ability to compete, and to the overall wealth and standard of living of a nation. Productivity is affected by work methods, capital, quality, technology, and management.
STANDARD COST PRICING is a development of the cost-plus approach to setting prices is to use cost 'standards' based on management accounting systems. Variable costs of production (materials, labor, bought-in components, etc.) are added up and divided by the number of units intended to be produced to give a variable cost per unit. Similarly running costs of the organization (rent, rates, energy, maintenance, together with management and administrative costs) are totaled and divided by the number of units to be sold to provide the fixed cost per unit. Finally the profit required is added in on a per unit basis. Adding together the variable cost, fixed cost and profit per unit gives the selling price.
SUSTAINABILITY ACCOUNTING involves linking sustainability initiatives to the entity's strategy, evaluating risks and opportunities, and providing measurement, accounting and performance management skills to ensure that sustainability is embedded into the day-to-day operations of the entity.
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