PROFIT AND LOSS SHARING (PLS) is the method utilized in Islamic banking to comply with the prohibition of interest. The Islamic solution, commonly referred to as Profit & Loss Sharing (PLS), suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parties involved in a financial transaction. In the banking business, there are three parties - the entrepreneur or the actual user of capital, the bank which serves as a partial user of capital funds and as a financial intermediary, and the depositors in the bank who are the suppliers of savings or capital funds. There are two different partnerships of the type mentioned in Islam: the partnership between the depositors and the bank, and the partnership between the entrepreneur (or the borrower) and the bank. Under this proposal, financial institutions will not receive a fixed rate of interest on their outstanding loans, rather, they share in profits or in losses of the business owner to whom they have provided the funds. Similarly, those individuals who deposit their funds in a bank will share in the profit/loss of the financial institution.
MARGINAL PROFIT is the change in the total profit that results from the sale of an additional unit.
VENTURE CAPITALIST (VC) is a professional equity-based investor. He/She manages one or more venture capital funds looking for suitable high-reward investments. VC investments are normally in riskier start-up or expansion ventures. Being high-risk investors, venture capitalists normally look for a substantially higher rate of return than might be realized in more traditional investments. See ANGEL INVESTOR.
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