PROFIT AND LOSS SHARING (PLS) is the method utilized in Islamic banking to comply with the prohibition of interest. The Islamic solution, commonly referred to as Profit & Loss Sharing (PLS), suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parties involved in a financial transaction. In the banking business, there are three parties - the entrepreneur or the actual user of capital, the bank which serves as a partial user of capital funds and as a financial intermediary, and the depositors in the bank who are the suppliers of savings or capital funds. There are two different partnerships of the type mentioned in Islam: the partnership between the depositors and the bank, and the partnership between the entrepreneur (or the borrower) and the bank. Under this proposal, financial institutions will not receive a fixed rate of interest on their outstanding loans, rather, they share in profits or in losses of the business owner to whom they have provided the funds. Similarly, those individuals who deposit their funds in a bank will share in the profit/loss of the financial institution.
BOOKBUILD is a particular way of conducting a float where the price at which shares are sold is not fixed, but rather is determined following a process in which interested investors bid for shares. This is quite a common way of determining the price paid for shares by institutional investors (Funds Managers).
ROLL FORWARD, in accounting, it is the systematic establishment of a new accounting periods balances by using (rolling forward) prior accounting period data. There are two approaches: 1. Roll forward both asset and liabilities on a consistent basis from a consistent earlier date (possibly the last annual review) or, take the most up to date asset and liability figures as the starting point (which may be at different dates) to produce roll forward estimates of assets and liabilities; in securities, it is when an investor replaces an old options position with a new one having a later expiration date (and same strike price).
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