PROFIT BEFORE TAXES (PBT) is a profitability measure that looks at a companys profits before the company has to pay income tax. This measure deducts all expenses from revenue including interest expenses and operating expenses, but it leaves out the payment of tax.
STRAIGHT BOND is the most common debt security. All other bond types are variations of, or additions to standard straight bond features. An investor pays a single capital sum to receive interest payments, called coupons, until a fixed maturity date when the last coupon is accompanied by redemption of the bonds face value. The coupon is simply a fixed rate of interest - paid annually or semi-annually - on the principal sum or face/par value. The debt is of fixed maturity - the principal redemption date. The maximum term is 30 years, but 7-10 years is most common.
OPERATING EFFECTIVENESS is how an internal control was applied, the consistency with which it was applied, and by whom.
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