PUSH-DOWN ACCOUNTING, in acquisitions, is an exception to the general rule that the acquiree's carrying values are unaffected by the purchase may arise when substantially all of the acquiree's shares are purchased by the acquirer. In that case, the acquirer may direct the acquiree to revalue its assets in accordance with the fair values attributed to those assets by the acquirer. This practice is known as push-down accounting, because the fair values are 'pushed down' to the acquiree's books. The net effect is the same as if the acquirer had formed a new subsidiary, which then purchased all of the assets and liabilities of the acquiree. There are two advantages to push-down accounting: a. The first is that the financial position and results of operations of the acquiree will be reported on the same economic basis in both the consolidated statements and its own separate entity statements. Without push-down accounting, for example, it would be possible for the subsidiary to report a profit on its own and yet contribute an operating loss to the parent's consolidated results, if the consolidation adjustments are sufficient to tip the balance between profit and loss; and, b. The second advantage is that the process of consolidation will be greatly simplified for the parent. Since the carrying values will be the same as the acquisition fair values, there will be no need for many of the consolidation adjustments that otherwise will be required every time consolidated statements are prepared.
MARKET TO BOOK VALUE is calculated by dividing the market value (MV) of a company, i.e., the total value of all its outstanding shares, by the value of its tangible assets (TA). Also known as TOBIN RATIO = MV/TA.
ACCOUNT-CLASSIFICATION METHOD, also called account analysis, is a cost estimation method that requires a study of an account in the general ledger. The experienced analysts use the account information as well as their own judgment to determine how costs will behave in the future.
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