QUALIFIED DOMESTIC RELATIONS ORDER (QDRO) is when a state court allocates an interest in a qualified retirement plan to a former spouse through a qualified domestic relations order. Payments made to a former spouse as the result of a QDRO will not result in the taxpayer being assessed a penalty for early withdrawal from the plan; the former spouse will be taxed on the benefits when received, or the benefits can be rolled over tax free into an IRS or another qualified retirement plan.
SUBSTANCE OVER FORM is an accounting concept where the entity is accounting for items according to their substance and economic reality and not merely their legal form. This concept is one of the key determinants of reliable information. For most transactions there will be no difference, so no issue arises. In some cases however, the two diverge and the choice of how to present the transactions can give very different results. This difference occurs when an asset or liability is not recognized in the accounts even though benefits or obligations may result from the transaction, or oppositely.
NONCOMPETITIVE BID, in securities, is a bid allowed to be placed on a noncompetitive basis by the U.S. Treasury at one of its securities auctions. A bidder in this case does not specify the price at which it wishes to purchase these securities. However, at the close of bidding, it is awarded all or part of the number of bonds it asked for at the average price of all the accepted competitive bids.
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