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QUALITY OF EARNINGS is the increased earnings due to increased sales and cost controls, as compared to artificial profits created by inflation of inventory or other asset prices.

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OUT-OF-THE-MONEY OPTION is an option that has no intrinsic value; for example, an option whose strike price, in the case of a put, is lower than the stocks current price, or in the case of a call, is higher. An investor who buys an out-of-the-money option is speculating that the option will rise in value and become in-the-money. See IN-THE-MONEY OPTION.

GROSS SURPLUS RATIO measures the margin on each dollar of operating revenue for the entity in question. The operating results before interest and depreciation, or gross surplus, are calculated as a percentage of total operating revenue. The gross surplus ratio shows the gross surplus as a percentage of the entitys turnover. If the percentage is high this could be interpreted as a sign that the entity is operating efficiently.

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