RANDOM SELECTION is a probability-based selection protocol in which each unit has a known probability of being selected. The chances of selection need not be equal for each unit, as long as the chances are known for each unit.
LEMON is a. an investment with a poor or negative rate of return or a purchase made where the product has continuing problems, e.g. a lemon of an automobile; or, b. an asset that is in continual need of repair, e.g. an automobile can be referred to as a lemon.
RED HERRING is a preliminary registration statement describing the issue (the IPO) and prospects of the company that must be filed with the SEC or provincial securities commission. There is no price or issue size stated in the red herring. Red Herrings are sometimes updated several times before it is called the final prospectus. It is known as a red herring because it contains a statement typed in red that the company is not attempting to sell their shares before the registration is approved by the SEC.
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