RCLD see REPRODUCTION COST LESS DEPRECIATION.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION is the extent to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. Control upstream is referred to as backward integration (towards suppliers of raw material), while control of activities downstream (towards the eventual buyer) is referred to as forward integration.
UNDERRECORDED normally refers to an understatement as to what a total would be if all data was accurately included or considered; e.g. underrecorded costs, revenues, population, etc.
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