REAL ACCOUNTS, also called permanent accounts, are the accounts; asset, liability, reserve and capital; whose balances are not canceled out at the end of an accounting period, but are carried over to the next period. These accounts appear on the post-closing trial balance and the statement of condition (balance sheet).
STOCKTAKING is the process of counting and evaluating stock-in-trade, usually at an organizations year end in order to value the total stock for preparation of the accounts. In more sophisticated organizations, in which permanent stock records are maintained, stock is counted on a random basis throughout the year to compare quantities counted with the quantities that appear in the, usually, computerized records.
UNDERSTATED is to represent as less than is the case.
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