REAL, dependent upon usage, means either 1. in economics, refers to measures such as cost, price and income, which are corrected for inflation over time in order to permit a comparison of actual purchasing power; or, 2. actual cost, as opposed to nominal.
OFF-BOOK PARTNERSHIP is a type of blind trust. It offers some advantages over the traditional methods of capital procurement. In some cases there is a fatal lack of transparency (e.g. Enron) that allows off-book partners to hide debts, pump profits, launder money and enrich insiders, but ultimately bankrupting the company and stripping assets from its employees' pension funds. See BLIND TRUST.
VENTURE CAPITAL is capital committed to an unproven venture. The initial, start-up money is referred to as "seed money" and entails the greatest risk. If the project gets off the ground it may require additional financing at additional "rounds" or the "mezzanine level" before the company is finally brought to the market and the venture capitalist can enjoy handsome rewards. Experienced investors in venture capital situations typically plan on turning away a minimum of 9 out of every 10 proposals which are brought to them, and then they expect as many failures as successes from their selected investments.
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