RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (R&D) is research as a planned activity aimed at discovery of new knowledge with the hope of developing new or improved products and services. Development is the translation of the research findings into a plan or design of new or improved products and services.
ESTATE is the entire group of assets owned by an individual at the time of his or her death. The estate includes all funds, personal effects, interests in business enterprises, titles to property-real estate and chattels, and evidences of ownership such as stocks, bonds and mortgages owned, notes receivable, etc. All claims against an estate must be duly filed with the Executor or Administrator of the estate, and approved by the court of law under which the will is being probated or the line of heritage is being determined before the indebtedness may be satisfied.
ACCOUNTING THEORY tries to describe the role of accounting and is composed of four types of accounting theory: classical inductive theories, income theories, decision usefulness theories, and information economics / agency theories: a. Classical inductive theories are attempts to find the principles on which current accounting processes are based; b. Income theories try to identify the real profit of an organization; c. Decision usefulness theories attempt to describe accounting as a process of providing the relevant information to the relevant decision makers; and, d. The information economics / agency theories of accounting see accounting information as a good to be traded between rational agents each acting in their own self-interest.
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