RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (R&D) is research as a planned activity aimed at discovery of new knowledge with the hope of developing new or improved products and services. Development is the translation of the research findings into a plan or design of new or improved products and services.
ENVIRONMENT, in an accounting control assessment, is the attitude, awareness, and actions of the board, management, owners, and others about importance of control. It
includes integrity and ethical rules, commitment to competence, board or audit committee participation, organization structure, assignment of authority and responsibility, and human resource policies and practices.
COST OF CAPITAL/FUNDS is the rate of return that a business could earn if it so chose other investments with the equivalent risks. Also can be stated as opportunity cost of the funds used due to the investment decision.
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