RESERVE ACCOUNTS, generally, are those accounts where retained earnings are set aside to satisfy dividends, improvements, contingencies, retirement of preferred stock, etc.
COMPETITIVE PRICING generally is where firms must be able to offer the best price in the market and meet price erosion without compromising quality. This is normally met whenever a firm finds acceptable a prices-production combination such that: a. At these prices, there is no other production plan yielding higher profits and using fewer capital goods; namely, firms behave as constrained profit maximizers at given prices; and, b. There is no price vector satisfying "a." with higher prices for capital goods. In other words, the prices of capital goods are maximal within those satisfying constrained profit maximization
STRAIGHT BOND is the most common debt security. All other bond types are variations of, or additions to standard straight bond features. An investor pays a single capital sum to receive interest payments, called coupons, until a fixed maturity date when the last coupon is accompanied by redemption of the bonds face value. The coupon is simply a fixed rate of interest - paid annually or semi-annually - on the principal sum or face/par value. The debt is of fixed maturity - the principal redemption date. The maximum term is 30 years, but 7-10 years is most common.
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