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RESTRUCTURING is the termination of employees and the reorganization of those remaining; can include reductions in plant and equipment. Restructuring is usually implemented to realize cost savings.

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ALPHA is the measurement of returns from an investment in excess of market returns. It represents the amount expected from fundamental causes, e.g. the growth rate in earnings per share. This contrasts with BETA, which is a measure of risk or volatility.

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE is a comparison of financial statement amounts with an auditor's expectation. An example is to compare actual interest expense for the year (a financial statement amount) with an estimate of what that interest expense should be. The estimate can be found by multiplying a reasonable interest rate times the average balance of interest bearing debt outstanding during the year (the auditor's expectation). If actual interest expense differs significantly from the expectation, the auditor explains the difference in audit documentation.

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