RETAINED EARNINGS are profits of the business that have not been paid out to the owners as of the balance sheet date. The earnings have been "retained" for use in the business (Retained Earnings is an account in the equity section of the balance sheet). It is comprised of the balance, either debit or credit, of appropriated or unappropriated earnings of an entity that are retained in the business. A good rate of growth in retained earnings is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. NOTE: Appropriated earnings are not available for dividends, but may be used to reduce a deficit or may be transferred to stated capital. Other appropriations of profits require a vote of the shareholders.
FRS 19 is a deferred tax standard. In summary:
A. Deferred tax is provided on timing differences relating to: - accelerated capital allowances and depreciation
- accruals for and payments of pension and other post retirement benefits
- the elimination of unrealized intra group profits
- unrelieved tax losses
- "fair value revaluations" that are taken annually to the profit and loss account
- other short-term timing differences
B. Deferred tax is not provided on timing differences relating to: - other fixed asset revaluations, where there is no intention to sell
- gains that are rolled over
- unremitted overseas earnings, where there is no intention to remit.
The FRS 19 Standard also includes further, detailed measurement and disclosure rules.
CAPITAL INVESTMENT see CAPITAL EXPENDITURE.
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