RETROACTIVE is to affect and modify things past, e.g. a retroactive tax increase.
DISABILITY INSURANCE, in the United States, is a payroll tax required in some states that is deducted from employee paychecks to insure income during periods where an employee is unable to work due to an injury or illness.
DISCOUNTED EARNINGS determines the value of a business based upon the present value of projected future earnings, discounted by the required rate of return (capitalization rate). Usually, the question is how well earnings are projected.
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