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RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA) shows the after tax earnings of assets. Return on assets is an indicator of how profitable a company is. Use this ratio annually to compare a business performance to the industry norms: The higher the ratio the greater the return on assets. However this has to be balanced against such factors as risk, sustainability and reinvestment in the business through development costs. 

Higher ROA is better, but extremely high ROA may be an indicator of vulnerability as to any sustainable competitive advantage.

Formula: Earnings After Tax (EAITDA) / Total Assets

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COST OF GOODS SOLD (COGS) is a figure representing the cost of buying raw material and producing finished goods. Included are precise factors, i.e. material and factory labor; as well as others that are variable, such as factory overhead.

DEPRECIATION CONVENTION is utilized to determine how much depreciation to charge the first year when an item is bought part way through the year. Three different conventions are used: 1. Half year convention - All property placed in service is considered to be placed in service half way through the year. During the first year, half of the "normal" depreciation is taken. At the end of the depreciation period, the other half of the "normal" depreciation is taken; 2. Mid-quarter convention - If the amount of depreciation claimed on new items during the last 3 months of a year exceeds 40% of the total depreciation claimed during the year, then the mid-quarter convention is used. The amount of depreciation of each item is figured for one year then multiplied by 87.5% if was placed in service during Jan. - March, 62.5% if it was placed in service during April - June, 37.5% for items placed in service during July-Sept, and 12.5% for items placed in service during Oct. - Dec.; or, 3. Mid-month convention - All property is considered to be placed in service during the midpoint of the month. This requires some calculations.

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