RETURN ON INVESTED CAPITAL (ROIC) is a measure of how effectively a company uses the money (owned or borrowed) invested in its company operations. It is calculated by: net income after taxes / (total assets less excess cash minus non-interest-bearing liabilities).
ACCOUNTING SYSTEM is the set of manual and computerized procedures and controls that provide for identifying relevant transactions or events; preparing accurate source documents, entering data into the accounting records accurately, processing transactions accurately, updating master files properly, and generating accurate documents and reports.
INDEPENDENT AUDIT is an examination of financial statements conducted by an outside CPA (one not employed by the firm being examined) according to generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the statements are a fair presentation in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
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