ROACE stands for Return on Average Capital Employed.
RETURN ON INVESTED CAPITAL (ROIC) is a measure of how effectively a company uses the money (owned or borrowed) invested in its company operations. It is calculated by: net income after taxes / (total assets less excess cash minus non-interest-bearing liabilities).
DISCRETIONARY FIXED COST normally has a budgetary life of under one year, i.e. the cost arises from annual budgetary decisions by management in specific fixed cost areas, e.g. R&D or Marketing.
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