RULE OF THUMB Definition

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RULE OF THUMB is a rough and useful principle or method, based on experience rather than precisely accurate measures.

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DIVIDEND RECEIVED DEDUCTION is the reduction of dividend income from the taxable income of the investing corporation, as provided in section 301 of the Internal Revenue Code. Currently, 70% of dividends received from nonaffiliated corporations may be excluded from taxable income.

CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds gener­ally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.

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