S&P 500 see STANDARD AND POORS.
SOFT COSTS are those extraneous costs that are not readily foreseen or budgeted for, e.g. legal fees, loan fees and interest, etc.
PRESENT VALUE is the discounted value of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future, taking into consideration a specific interest or discount rate. Present Value represents a series of future cash flows expressed in todays dollars. A given amount of money is almost always more valuable sooner than later, so present values are generally smaller than corresponding future values.
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