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SCIENTER THEORY is based on the word scienter, which is Latin for "having knowledge." In criminal law, the theory refers to knowledge by a defendant that his/her acts were illegal or his/her statements were lies and thus fraudulent. In securities, it is to knowingly transact a fraudulent securities deal.

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PENCE is a currency of Falkland Islands, St. Helena, and United Kingdom.

RESIDUAL VALUE is: a) Realizable value of a fixed asset after deducting costs associated with its sale; b) Scrap value or the value to a junk dealer; or c) The amount remaining after all depreciation has been deducted from the original cost of a depreciable asset.

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