SCIENTER THEORY is based on the word scienter, which is Latin for "having knowledge." In criminal law, the theory refers to knowledge by a defendant that his/her acts were illegal or his/her statements were lies and thus fraudulent. In securities, it is to knowingly transact a fraudulent securities deal.
INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR is a person that buys or sells securities for his/her own account. The individual investor is also called a retail investor or retail shareholder.
LIABILITY, in insurance, is a term used when analyzing insurance risks that describes possible areas of financial exposure / loss. Presently, there are three forms of liability coverage that insurers will underwrite: The first is general liability, which covers any kind of bodily injury to non-employees except that caused by automobiles and professional malpractice. The second is product liability, which covers injury to customers arising as a direct result of goods purchased from a business. The third is public liability, which covers injury to the public while they are on the premises of the insured.
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