SEGMENTATION is the act of dividing or partitioning; separation by the creation of a boundary that divides or keeps apart, e.g. segmenting a market along the characteristics and needs of a particular consumer group.
LIQUIDATION VALUE is a type of valuation similar to an adjusted book value analysis. Liquidation value is different than book value in that it uses the value of the assets at liquidation, which is often less than market and sometimes book. Liabilities are deducted from the liquidation value of the assets to determine the liquidation value of the business. Liquidation value can be used to determine the bare bottom benchmark value of a business, since this should be the funds the business may bring upon valuation. Liquidation can be either "orderly" or "forced".
GOODWILL is that intangible possession which enables a business to continue to earn a profit that is in excess of the normal or basic rate of profit earned by other businesses of similar type. The goodwill of a business may be due to a particularly favorable location, its reputation in the community, or the quality of its employer and employees. The evidence that goodwill exists is the proven ability to earn excess profits. Goodwill is created on the books of a newly purchased company to the extent that the purchase price of the company is greater than the value of its net tangible assets. There are a number of methods for valuing goodwill: a. Simple Capitalization - The net profit of the business is capitalized to determine the total value of the business. The value of all the tangible assets is subtracted from the total value to establish the value of the intangible assets, or goodwill. b. Excess Earnings - the amount of earnings that are in excess of those normally earned by a similar business are capitalized to determine the value of goodwill. c. Income Tax Method - The past five years net income is averaged and a reasonable expected rate of return for tangible assets and salary requirements are subtracted. The resulting value is then capitalized to arrive at the goodwill value. d. Market Value - The price a willing seller would accept and a willing buyer would pay for goodwill. e. Buy /Sell Agreement - The value of goodwill is established by a formula in the buy/ sell agreement. f. Rule of Thumb - Goodwill is worth one years gross income.
A firm that shows increasing goodwill over a multi-year period likely has a sustainable competitive advantage.
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