SELLING SHORT Definition

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SELLING SHORT is selling securities not yet owned by the seller in anticipation of declining market prices. At some point in the future, the seller covers the sale by purchas­ing and delivering the securities.

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DISCRETIONARY SPENDING consists of US government expenditures that are set on an annual basis. It is a budget that members of Congress can adjust on a yearly basis. Examples of discretionary spending in the United States:

-defense budget
-education
-Environmental Protection Agency
-Department of Veterans Affairs

When looking to cut costs, lawmakers usually look to trimming discretionary spending. See MANDATORY SPENDING.

SUSTAINABLE GROWTH RATE (SGR) shows how fast a company can grow using internally generated assets without issuing additional debt or equity. SGR provides a useful benchmark for judging a companys appropriate rate of growth. A company with a low sustainable growth rate but lots of opportunities for expansion will have to fund that growth via outside sources, which could lower profits and perhaps strain the companys finances. Growth can be a major dilemma because with growth comes a spontaneously generated need for increased working capital. VentureLine calculates a Sustainable Growth Rate from the data entered into the Income Statement and Balance Sheet. The Sustainable Growth Rate is the rate at which the firm may grow the Stockholders Equity Account (Net Worth) using only increases in Retained Earnings (Net Profits contribution to retained earnings) to fund the growth. Growth beyond this amount will force the firm to obtain additional financing from external sources to finance growth. Formula: SGR =  (Asset Turnover) x (After Tax Revenue on Sales) x (Assets / Debt) x (Debt / Equity) x (Fraction of Earnings Retained)

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