SEPARATE VALUATION CONCEPT is a recording and measurement rule that relates to the determination of the aggregate amount of any item. In order to determine the aggregate amount of an asset or a liability, each individual asset or liability that comprises the aggregate must be determined separately. This is important because material items may reflect different economic circumstances. There must be a review of each material item to comply with the appropriate accounting standards.
RETURN ON INVESTED CAPITAL (ROIC) is a measure of how effectively a company uses the money (owned or borrowed) invested in its company operations. It is calculated by: net income after taxes / (total assets less excess cash minus non-interest-bearing liabilities).
FICTITIOUS ASSET is debit balance includes on balance sheets as assets that do not conform to the definition of an asset. Intentional includes of assets known to be fictitious assets may be ruled as fraud.
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