SETTLEMENT, in securities, is the conclusion of a securities transaction; a broker/dealer buying securities pays for them; a selling broker delivers the securities to the buyer's broker.
ECONOMIC INCOME is the maximum amount that can be distributed to owners during the accounting period and leave the business as well off at the end of the accounting period as it was at the beginning of the period; i.e. cash flow based.
HEDGE FUND is a special type of investment fund with fewer restrictions on the types of investments it can make. Of note is a hedge funds ability to sell short. In exchange for the ability to use more aggressive strategies, hedge funds are more exclusive, i.e., fewer people, usually only the wealthy, are allowed to invest in hedge funds.
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