SHARE APPLICATION MONEY is that money received by a company during an IPO. Payments received for a subscription of stock is normally received over the IPO life. For example: Widgets Limited has been registered with an authorized capital of $2,00,000 divided into 2,000 shares of $100 each of which, 1,000 shares were offered for public subscription at a premium of $5 per share, payable as:
For a total of $105/share
The amounts received would be carried as a current liability until such time as the stock is issued, then it would be considered as part of equity.
ECONOMIC SUBSTANCE refers to the application of income tax laws, i.e., the substance of the transaction, rather than its form, determines the tax consequences, with few exceptions. The "form" of a transaction is only the label the interested parties attach to their arrangement. For instance, an arrangement might be called a compensation agreement, loan, lease or sale. Documents may support the form, but the courts are not concerned with these labels or papers that purport to govern the transaction -- they focus on its substance. The "substance over form" analysis is used to dissect self-serving transactions between parties, including loans and payments to family members; transactions between related corporations and their shareholders, partnerships and their partners; and between trusts and their beneficiaries. For instance, sale of a home by a parent to a child may be re-characterized by the court as a gift, if the child never pays for it. Related-party transactions provide fertile territory for self-dealing, with the tax benefit as the real motivating purpose, disguised by the form of the transaction. In contrast, arms-length transactions with independent third parties are far less vulnerable.
DEFERRED MAINTENANCE is asset maintenance that was not performed when it should have been or was scheduled to be performed and was delayed until a future period, i.e. in most cases it is a nice way to say that the asset has not been kept up and is depreciating both in value and physically.
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