SHARPE RATIO, named after William P. Sharpe, is a measurement of portfolio trading performance. It is calculated by subtracting risk free rate from total portfolio return, then dividing by the standard deviation of the portfolio:Sharpe ratio = Total portfolio return - Risk free rate / Portfolio standard deviation.

SMALL-CAP is a stock with a capitalization, meaning a total equity value, of less than $500 million.

COST ELEMENT, in cost accounting, is the lowest level component of a resource activity, or cost object.

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