SHORT SALE is the selling of a security that the seller does not own, or any sale that is completed by the delivery of a security borrowed by the seller. Such sales are made in anticipation of a decline in the price of the security to enable the seller to cover the sale with a purchase at a later date, at a lower price, and thus at a profit. Short sellers assume the risk that they will be able to buy the stock at a more favorable price than the price at which they sold short.
PRETAX INCOME is a profitability measure that looks at a company's profits before the company has to pay income tax. This measure deducts all expenses from revenue including interest expenses and operating expenses, but it leaves out the payment of tax.
FINANCIAL GEARING reflects any borrowing that the company may have undertaken. Operating income will become more volatile with increased financial gearing (borrowing). Thus the shares will have more risk attached to them. More borrowing, more risk. See GEARING and OPERATIONAL GEARING.
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