SHORT TERM DEBT is any debt owed by a company that is due and payable within one year. The debt is often made up of short-term bank loans the company is liable for.
FINANCIAL RISK is the possibility of whether a bond issuer will default, by failing to repay principal and/or interest in a timely manner. Usually bonds issued by the federal government, for the most part, are immune from default (if the government needs money... more is printed). Bonds issued by corporations are more probable to be defaulted on, since companies often go bankrupt. Municipalities occasionally default as well, but it is much less common. Can also be called default risk or credit risk.
EARN-OUT refers to an additional payment in a merger or acquisition that is not part of the original acquisition cost, which is based on the acquired company's future earnings relative to a level determined by the merger agreement.
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