SOCIAL COST Definition

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SOCIAL COST is the cost to society as a whole from an event, action, or policy change. Includes negative externalities and does not count costs that are transfers to others, in contrast to private cost.

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DUAL PURPOSE TEST is when audit procedures are classified both as substantive tests and tests of controls. When an audit procedure provides both types of evidence it is a dual purpose test.

VARIANCE, in accounting, is the difference between a projected number and the actual number, e.g. 1. a budget variance is spending either more or less from the amount that was budgeted; and 2. a cost variance is the difference between actual cost and standard cost in the categories of direct material, direct labor, and direct overhead.

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