SOCIAL COST is the cost to society as a whole from an event, action, or policy change. Includes negative externalities and does not count costs that are transfers to others, in contrast to private cost.
ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING see ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING.
LADDER is a form of diversification in which investments with widely varying maturities are held within an investment portfolio. Spreading investments over a range of maturities reduces interest rate risk on reinvestment by averaging out interest rate cycles. This strategy assures a continuous cash flow over time with some potential sacrifice of optimum total return.
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