STANDARD AND POORS (S&P) 500 is an index of the 500 largest, most actively traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange. It provides a guide to the overall health of the US stock market.
PRINCIPLES-BASED ACCOUNTING provides for few exact rules and little implementation guidance. Instead, general principles are put forward and companies must ensure that their financial statements fairly and accurately represent these principles. Proponents argue that this type of system does not allow for less than ethical financial engineering, where complex transactions are undertaken in order to get around following specific rules-based accounting standards. Critics believe a principles-based system allows too much leeway for companies, because they generally do not have to follow specific rules, only wide-arching principles. See also RULES-BASED ACCOUNTING.
CAPITAL ADEQUACY is a measure of the financial strength of a bank or securities firm, usually expressed as a ratio of its capital to its assets. For banks, there is now a worldwide capital adequacy standard, drawn up by the Basle Committee of the Bank for International Settlements. This ratio requires banks to have capital equal to 8 per cent of their assets.
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