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STANDARD COST is production or operating cost that is carefully predetermined. A standard cost is a target cost that should be attained. The standard cost is compared with the actual cost in order to measure the performance of a given costing department or operation. See STANDARD COST SYSTEM.

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IMPAIRMENT OF VALUE is the permanent decline in the value of an asset. The entry is to debit the loss account and credit the asset for the loss in utility. See also FRS 11.

ADJUSTABLE RATE PREFERRED (ARP) is preferred stock issues in which dividends are reset quarterly either at a fixed spread or at a percentage of the highest of three benchmarks on the yield curve. Also known as floating­-rate preferreds.

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