STANDARD COST PRICING is a development of the cost-plus approach to setting prices is to use cost 'standards' based on management accounting systems. Variable costs of production (materials, labor, bought-in components, etc.) are added up and divided by the number of units intended to be produced to give a variable cost per unit. Similarly running costs of the organization (rent, rates, energy, maintenance, together with management and administrative costs) are totaled and divided by the number of units to be sold to provide the fixed cost per unit. Finally the profit required is added in on a per unit basis. Adding together the variable cost, fixed cost and profit per unit gives the selling price.
SEGREGATED FUND is a pooled investment fund, much like a mutual fund, established by an insurance company and segregated from the general capital of the company. Its chief distinction from a mutual fund is its guarantee that, regardless of fund performance, at least a minimum percentage of the investors payments into the fund will be returned when the fund matures.
CAPITAL REPLACEMENT, or economic depreciation, is the portion of the value of machinery and equipment, in addition to repairs, that is used up in the production of a particular commodity. It is based on the current value of the machinery. Capital replacement may be regarded as a discretionary expense in any particular year. It may be deferred when income is low but ultimately must be paid to maintain the capital stock so that over the long term, the operation remains in business.
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