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STANDARD DEDUCTIONS is used to reduce income by taxpayers who do not itemize allowable deductions on their tax returns. The amount of the deduction depends on your filing status: if you are 65 or older, if you are blind and whether you can be claimed as a dependent on another taxpayers income tax return. See ITEMIZED DEDUCTIONS.

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VERTICAL INTEGRATION is the extent to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. Control upstream is referred to as backward integration (towards suppliers of raw material), while control of activities downstream (towards the eventual buyer) is referred to as forward integration.

POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to explain why some accounting practices are more popular than others (e.g., because they increase management compensation). They tend to support their conclusions with inductive theory and empirical evidence as opposed to deductive methods. Generally avoid advocacy of one accounting rule as being better or worse than its alternatives. Positivists are inspired by anecdotal evidence, but anecdotal evidence is never permitted without more rigorous and controlled scientific investigation.

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