STANDARD DEVIATION is a statistic used to measure dispersion equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.

DIRECT JOURNAL PAYMENT is a payment that is recognized that is not included in the Accounts Receivable ledger, e.g. a double payment on a mortgage that has a monthly payment due and payable will cause a split-payment posting: one in the Accounts Receivable ledger for one half of the payment (principal and interest that is invoiced), with the other half of the payment being posted to the Long Term Loan ledger as a direct journal payment.

PHYSICAL INVENTORY is the counting of all merchandise or equipment on hand.

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