STOCK DIVIDEND is a dividend paid in stock rather than in cash. The additional shares can be in the form of a stock split, additional shares of the issuing company, or of a subsidiary.
CONTRIBUTED SURPLUS is money a company receives by selling shares above par value or their stated value, or from government donation of land to the company, etc. Contributed Surplus is a balance sheet item that is part of the shareholders' equity.
LADDER is a form of diversification in which investments with widely varying maturities are held within an investment portfolio. Spreading investments over a range of maturities reduces interest rate risk on reinvestment by averaging out interest rate cycles. This strategy assures a continuous cash flow over time with some potential sacrifice of optimum total return.
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