SUBSTANTIATED is where the subject is supported with proof or evidence.
MARGINAL BENEFIT takes into account the fact that the more an entity has or devotes to something, the less benefit that is likely to be derived from the additional units applied, e.g. additional labor hours expended to complete a task can be of questionable benefit if parts, tools, or machines cannot optimally absorb the additional labor applied, i.e. the additional hours devoted would be of marginal benefit.
HIGH YIELD (JUNK) is bonds and preferred stocks having an S&P/Moody's rating of BB+/Ba1 or lower, and NAIC ratings of"3", "4", "5", or "6". Below investment grade securities have greater risk and therefore compensate investors with higher market yields. In addition to new issues, high yield securities can evolve from older issues with declining ratings, or can be created through leveraged buyouts where management uses the assets of the company as collateral for the issue.
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