TOBIN RATIO see MARKET TO BOOK VALUE.
PRESENT VALUE is the discounted value of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future, taking into consideration a specific interest or discount rate. Present Value represents a series of future cash flows expressed in todays dollars. A given amount of money is almost always more valuable sooner than later, so present values are generally smaller than corresponding future values.
SECURED LIABILITY is a liability that has a degree of protection towards satisfaction if unpaid because the debtor has pledged personal/company assets towards satisfaction of that liability; e.g., a property mortgage is a secured liability because the mortgage holder has a guarantee through a lien on the property.
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