TONE AT THE TOP refers to how an organization's leadership creates the tone at the top - an ethical (or unethical) atmosphere in the workplace. Management's tone has a trickle-down effect on employees. If top managers uphold ethics and integrity so will employees. But if upper management appears unconcerned with ethics and focuses solely on the bottom line, employees will be more prone to commit fraud and feel that ethical conduct isn't a priority. In short, employees will follow the examples of their bosses
ACTUARIAL METHOD means the method of allocating payments made on a debt between the amount financed and the finance or other charges where the payment is applied first to the accumulated finance or other charges and any remainder is subtracted from, or any deficiency is added to the unpaid balance of the amount financed.
ALPHA is the measurement of returns from an investment in excess of market returns. It represents the amount expected from fundamental causes, e.g. the growth rate in earnings per share. This contrasts with BETA, which is a measure of risk or volatility.
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