TOP-DOWN APPROACH TO INVESTING is an investment approach that first seeks to define major economic and industry trends, then proceeds to identify the individual companies most likely to benefit from those trends. See BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO INVESTING.
OPENING BALANCE is the balance of an account at the start of an accounting period.
FLAG OF CONVENIENCE (FOC) involves the opportunistic registration of ships with national governments that do not impose or effectively administer agreed international standards regarding seaworthiness, safety and health, officer and crew competencies, and employment conditions. For the governments concerned FOC shipping is an easy way to make money. Registration comes at a price in return for turning a blind eye to maritime responsibility, decency and common sense. The classic FOC host has little to do legitimately with the sea and seafaring. For owners of FOC ships, often hidden in corporate mazes and having little to otherwise do with the registering authority, the device is a way of increasing profit margins or turning quick profits.
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