TOP-DOWN BUDGETING Definition

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TOP-DOWN BUDGETING is where budgets are created by starting from the highest level working towards the bottom using parametric relationships. A monetary value is placed on an individual unit (product, service, materials, and labor hour). An estimate of the number of units required is then converted to currency by multiplying the quantity of units by the unit price.

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PROPRIETARY THEORY is where no fundamental distinction is drawn between a legal entity and its owners, i.e. the entity does not exist separately from the owners for accounting purposes. The primary focus is to report information useful to the owners, and therefore the financial statements are prepared from their perspective. See ENTITY THEORY.

LIKE KIND, in taxes, refers to property that is similar to another for which it has been exchanged: real estate exchanged for real estate, for instance. The definitions of like kind properties can be found in the US Tax Code at Section 1031.

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