TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO) is a model developed by Gartner Group to analyze the direct and indirect costs of owning and using hardware and software. Managers of enterprise systems use various versions of TCO to lower costs while increasing the benefits of information technology deployments. The TCO includes: original cost of the computer and software, hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training. Most estimates place the TCO at about 3 to 4 times the actual purchase cost of the PC.
INCOME APPROACH is a general way of determining a value indication of a business, business ownership interest, security, or intangible asset using one or more methods that convert anticipated benefits into a present single amount.
R&D see RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT.
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