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TRADE SPENDING is that marketing expense directed towards brand building, e.g. promotional allowances, slotting, and advertisements. Total expenditure often represents 20-25% or more of total sales and is a significant expenditure for any size company. Managing this investment more wisely and reducing any fraction of a percentage of these dollars is vital.

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CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds gener­ally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.

DAYS PAYABLE OUTSTANDING (DPO) is an estimate of the length of time the company takes to pay its vendors after receiving inventory. If the firm receives favorable terms from suppliers, it has the net effect of providing the firm with free financing. If terms are reduced and the company is forced to pay at the time of receipt of goods, it reduces financing by the trade and increases the firms working capital requirements. It is calculated: Days Payable Outstanding = 365 / Payables Turnover (Payables Turnover = Purchases / Payables).

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