TRADING PROFIT is that profit earned from the short-term trading of securities that were held for less than one year. Such profit is usually subject to tax at regular income tax rates.
OTHER LONG-TERM ASSETS includes long-term assets not included into the investments, fixed, or intangible assets categories. Those other assets may be that part of prepaid expenses that will start expiring more than a year after the balance sheet date, or the cash surrender value of life insurance on company officers, etc.
CONTINENTAL MODEL is an accounting model. There are other accounting systems which differ from the U.S. accounting model. U.S. GAAP and FASB standards are not the only accounting principles used internationally; for example, many countries reverse the U.S. debit and credit system. Many countries with high rates of inflation account for inflation in financial reports much more than the U.S. does. Also, for any company operating internationally there is the currency exchange translation problem when consolidating financial statements.
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