TRANSACTION EXPOSURE, in foreign exchange, is the possibility of incurring exchange gains or losses on transactions already entered into and denominated in a foreign currency. It is typified by real exchange gains or losses and mixes retrospective and prospective views. It is short-term in nature.
UP-FRONT PAYMENT is anything of value, usually money, delivered at the time a contract is signed, e.g. down payment, licensing fees, or closing costs.
DIRECT LABOR UTILIZATION RATE is total payroll charged directly to job numbers in the period divided by the total payroll (direct and indirect) expended in the period. Since payroll is by far the single largest cost to operate a firm, generally speaking, the higher the direct labor rate, the more efficiently economically managed is the firm.
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