TRANSPOSITION ERROR is the unintentional exchange of two elements of an ordered list with all others staying the same. A transposition is therefore a permutation of two elements. For example, the swapping of 2 and 5 to take the list 123456 to 153426 is a transposition. In this example, if the newly ordered list of 153426 was unintentional, it would be commonly called a transposition error. In accounting, an error in copying a number from one place to another is a transposition error.
PROVISION, generally, is to prepare in advance for an event that is projected to take place in the future. In accounting, it is an amount charged against profits for a specific liability (for example: bad debts, depreciation or taxes). A liability may be known, but the amount is often uncertain. This uncertainty may lead to an adjustment in a later income statement once the final amount of the liability is ascertained.
HIGH-LOW METHOD of approximating cost behavior considers only two points of data, the highest and lowest, for activity within the relevant range. The method first focuses on cost changes, allowing an analyst to determine the presence of any variable cost. Next, fixed costs are determined by subtracting variable cost from the total cost at either of the two data points. The calculation is an algebraic procedure used to separate a semi-variable cost into the variable and fixed components. The method calls for using the extreme data points (highest and lowest x - y pairs) in the COST-VOLUME FORMULA y = a + bx; where a = fixed cost portion and b = the variable rate.
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