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UNDERWRITING is to protect by insurance or to guarantee the financial support of the subject item.

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INITIATIVE is a key action program developed to achieve objectives or close gap between measures performance and targets. Initiatives are often known as projects, actions, or activities. They differ from objectives in that they are more specific, have stated boundaries (beginning and end), have a person/team assigned to accomplish them, and have a budget. Several initiatives taken together may support a specific objective or theme. It is important for an organization to define the boundaries for Initiatives, such as “all strategic projects over $500k in size”. It is also important that Initiatives be strategic in nature, and not “operations as usual” projects, such as “Recruit a new Sales Rep." Example: “Develop Quality Management Program”, “Install ERP System”, “Revamp Supply Chain Process”, “Develop Competencies Model."

CONTROL ENVIRONMENT is the attitude, awareness, and actions of the board, management, owners, and others about the importance of control. This includes integrity and ethical rules, commitment to competence, board or audit committee participation, organizational structure, assignment of authority and responsibility, and human resource policies and practices.

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