UP-FRONT PAYMENT is anything of value, usually money, delivered at the time a contract is signed, e.g. down payment, licensing fees, or closing costs.
SEPARATE VALUATION CONCEPT is a recording and measurement rule that relates to the determination of the aggregate amount of any item. In order to determine the aggregate amount of an asset or a liability, each individual asset or liability that comprises the aggregate must be determined separately. This is important because material items may reflect different economic circumstances. There must be a review of each material item to comply with the appropriate accounting standards.
ATA (Accredited Tax Advisor), in the US, is a national credential conferred by Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation to professionals who handle sophisticated tax planning issues, including ownership of closely held businesses, qualified retirement plans and complicated estates.
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